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drop approximately 3 dB from each input signal, will send the remainder into the step attenuator. The step attenuator permits the operator to vary both of the two signal generators amplitudes by exactly the same amount at the same time, speeding up testing. From the attenuator the two-tone test signal is placed into the input of the receiver at the desired amplitude, while the level of the third-order IMD products are measured as dB below the carrier, or dBc. This IMD level will then be checked to confirm that it meets the receiver s design specifications.
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Nevertheless, fixed OADM rings are generally best-suited for static, long-standing service profiles, e.g., weeks long or months long holding times. Moreover these setups mandate careful demand projections, and inaccurate estimates can result in significant stranded capacity. To mitigate operational complexity, many OADM vendors offer detailed software planning tools. These packages allow carriers to input their connection demands and fiber routes/characteristics and then compute the required system configurations at all nodes, for example, wavelength assignments, VOA settings, amplifier locations, and so on. Many such tools also provide automated order placement for required modules. As traffic dynamics increase, static rings become less efficient due to excessive preplanning and manual provisioning requirements. Moreover, larger IOF rings need improved scalability and dynamic on-demand provisioning, particularly for meshed demands. These contingencies, coupled with advances in soft optics switching/tunable technologies, have led to the emergence of third-generation DWDM systems [3]. A key example here is the reconfigurable OADM (ROADM) node, which allows carriers to add-drop wavelength circuits dynamically at a given node, in other words dynamic online RWA. This ONE design vastly accelerates service delivery times (from days/weeks to minutes/hours) and lowers manual operational costs. Akin to its static counterpart, a ROADM also features transport, amplification, and (dynamic) add-drop stages (see Figure 8.3). Initial ROADM designs were opaque and used opto-electronic transponders and SONET/SDH fabrics to implement add-drop functions. Although these systems provided subrate TDM grooming and client-side hair-pinning capabilities, service transparency was eliminated. Overall, opaque ROADM nodes proved too expensive for most carriers, as large transponder arrays were needed to terminate/launch all wavelength channels. Additionally, related OPEX costs footprint and power consumption were also very significant. As a result, new advances have shifted carrier interests toward transparent all-optical ROADM designs. Today the ROADM market represents one of the fastest-growing and most promising sectors in DWDM space [2]. In fact, related price-points for ROADM systems are even becoming competitive with static OADM systems (owing to technological innovations, market competition, and intense pricing pressures from carriers). Commercial ROADM systems can provide remote automated add-drop of up to 40 wavelengths (any-wavelength-any-node) and use various technologies [2]. For example, some vendors deploy wavelength selective switch (WSS) fabrics whereas others use broadcast and select designs. In addition, tunable filters can also be used on input trunks to drop selected channels, for example, fiber Bragg gratings. Nevertheless alloptical ring transmission is quite challenging and requires some very specialized provisions. Foremost is the need for rapid AGC to stabilize wavelength powers across all links [3]. This is a crucial requirement as individual lightpath connections can experience sizeable power fluctuations during transient events such as connection setup/ takedown or faults. AGC is achieved by coupling EDFA amplifier designs with attenuators and modern subsystems to provide good gain flatness over wide input ranges with millisecond timings.
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The Bode plot is just a plot of this piecewise function, shown in Fig. 15-1. Next we plot H ( ). We have H ( ) = tan 1 The asymptotic behavior is given by H ( ) = tan 1 H ( ) = tan 1 0 as 0 20 as 20 2 20 generate data matrix barcode
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Logging Verification
The receiver takes the converted C-band signals and produces a baseband descrambled signal. Many manufacturers provide what is known in the industry as an IRD (integrated receiver descrambler) satellite
The essential strategy for reducing the threat of trial-and-error attacks is to increase the size of the base secret and the sensitivity of the verification procedure.
To create a character stream, wrap a byte stream inside one of the character stream wrappers. At the top of the character stream hierarchy are the abstract classes TextReader and TextWriter. TextReader handles input and TextWriter handles output. The methods defined by these two abstract classes are available to all of their subclasses. Thus, they form a minimal set of I/O functions that all character streams will have.
Answers to Quizzes and Final Exam
19: Basic Routing
As the output confirms, each catch clause responds only to its own type of exception. In general, catch clauses are checked in the order in which they occur in a program. Only the first matching clause is executed. All other catch blocks are ignored.
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25.3.1 TIMS
Acceptable Downtime None None Minutes Days
Figure 9-15 Instrumentation meter s ammeter (top left), voltmeter (top right), batter y indicator (center), temperature (bottom left), and rotar y switch (bottom right).
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