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DWDM combines multiple optical signals so they can be amplified as a group and transported over a single fiber, increasing the capacity. Each signal carried on the DWDM architecture can operate at a different rate (for example, OC 3, OC 12, OC 48 and so on) and in a different format (for example, SONET, ATM Cells, data, etc.). Using a mix and match approach allows the carriers to achieve different rates of speed and aggregated throughput, depending on the multiplexing equipment used. Future DWDM developments are touted as being able to carry up to 40 Lambda of OC 192 or a total of 400 Gbps. As a comparison, 400 Gbps will be 90,000 volumes of the encyclopedia in one second! DWDM requires that the transmission lasers have a very tight wavelength tolerance so that the signals do not interfere with each other. After all, the systems carry 16 or 32 different wavelengths on a single fiber. It is imperative that the tolerances be held tightly to prevent mass destruction of the data signals being generated on the fibers. The International Telecommunications Union (ITU) has specified 100 GHz standard spacing between the wavelengths, and most of the vendors are now manufacturing lasers at the standards-based wavelengths for the combination into DWDM. The most advanced today, using OC 192 lasers, has a tolerance of 0.1 nm, which is small enough to preclude any interference between two adjacent wavelengths. Designing OC 192 DWDM systems is ostensibly more difficult to design than the older OC 48 systems. The OC 192 systems being deployed in the networks also use both unidirectional and bi-directional systems in support of the fiber and DWDM multiplexers. However, the future may change things very quickly. Where OC 192 offers a 10 Gbps operation, the future offers an OC 768, which will create a fourfold increase in the capacities in the network. At the OC 768 rate, a multiplexing scheme will produce 40 Gbps on a single fiber rate (SONET rate), which then can use the DWDM capabilities to create a throughput of up to four times the 320 Gbps rate currently available. That equals terabit speeds (1.28 Tbps)! However, the use of spacing on the various lambdas will actually allow up to 400 Gbps and offers future speeds of up to 1.68 Gbps. What OC 768 will also bring to the table is a capability to concatenate the OC 192 levels. Today s current technology can use a concatenated OC 48, but stops there in the bonding of higher speeds. In the future, as ISPs and traditional telephone carriers need to expand their capacities, the need to draw a 10 Gbps concatenated throughput will appear. Today, this is not a big concern. However, in three to five years, this will become a commonplace occurrence. Table 28-4 is a summary of some of the other things that we are expecting to occur over the next five to ten years in the area of fiber transport systems. This table takes advantage of the work being done in many of the labs and research facilities around the world. The ability to push the envelope is what the communications industry is all about. Table 28-4: A look at what DWDM and fiber rates will bring over the next decade Technology and capacities DWDM at OC 192 and 40 Current vs. Future technology Current technology capable of carrying 40 different wavelengths (using ITU 100 GHz spacing) at 10 Gbps
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Shareware is a good way for small developers to sell PC games: they give the game away for free, let the users pass it on as much as they like, and they hope that if people like it enough, they ll pay for it. If you want to make little games for fun, and you re not really concerned about making a lot of money from them, then shareware is a good way to go. It also has the advantage that every penny comes back to you: there are no publishers, distributors, or retailers taking a cut, and, of course, no manufacturers building boxes. The problem with distributing fully functional games as shareware is that people are unlikely to pay you for them. Unlike software utilities or other applications, people usually stop playing a given game after a short while. If they ve already seen all that the game has to offer for free, why pay for it A much more common approach is to distribute just part of the game, and make people pay if they want the whole thing. Id Software made a vast amount of money this way with Doom. This is, in effect, what happens with game demos already, although they re not normally referred to as shareware. For PC games, demos are now almost obligatory as a way of generating demand before the complete game is released.
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represents a measurement of data throughput. In comparison, the baud represents the rate of signal change commonly expressed in terms of hertz. When information in the form of bits is to be transmitted, an oscillating wave is varied to impress or modulate information. The oscillating wave is referred to as a carrier. Common modulation techniques include altering the amplitude of the carrier [amplitude modulation (AM)], altering the frequency of the carrier [frequency modulation (FM)], and altering the time period or phase of the carrier [phase modulation (PM)]. Some communication systems also alter two characteristics of the carrier such as amplitude and phase. , We can commence our probe into the relationship of bits and baud with a simple modulation scheme referred to as frequency-shift keying (FSK), where each bit is modulated using one of two tones that we can refer to as f1 and f2. If we assume that all binary 1s are modulated at f1 and all binary 0s with f2, or vice versa, this simple modulation scheme results in each bit being equivalent to one signal change. Thus, in this situation the bit rate equals the baud rate. Now let s apply a more sophisticated modulation technique. Under phase modulation, we can vary the phase of a signal according to the composition of a single bit or a group of bits. Suppose our phase modulation technique involves varying the phase of the carrier to one of four positions (0 , 90 , 180 , and 270 ). This modulation technique would then allow each possible combination of 2 bits to be encoded into one signal change. An example of this technique is shown in Table 2.5. In examining the relationship between bit pairs and phase change, it is clear that the bit rate is twice the signaling rate since 2 bits are packed into each signal change. The technique described above is referred to as dibit encoding and represents one of many types of data modulation techniques. For now the important aspect of this digression is to note that the bit rate , may or may not equal the baud rate, depending on the method of data encoding used by a modulation scheme. Now that we have an appreciation for the difference between bit and baud rates as well as the need to modulate both data and voice for wireline and wireless transmission, let s end this digression and return to our discussion of the Nyquist relationship. MAXIMUM MODULATION RATE The Nyquist relationship states that the maximum rate at which data can be transmitted before one symbol interferes with another a condition referred to as intersymbol inter, ference, must be less than or equal to twice the bandwidth in hertz.
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1. Using an automatic anchor light switch 2. Switching to an LED all-round light
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