These examples are very different and yet both fit well within our definition of a workflow. Similarly, these are machine-centric workflows for different reasons, but at a very basic level it is because the process can be defined and codified to a degree that does not require human intervention. All seats are riveted to the floor in the same way for a given car. All credit card transactions are approved following the same well-defined set of rules and conditions. There is no reason for a human being to be involved for any reason other than exception handling which brings up a good point. Most machine-centric workflows exist because the process can be defined well enough for someone to write code to enforce the process. However, no matter how well defined the rules and process are, there must always be a final piece to handle unplanned-for conditions. That final step is usually to stop and pass the process off to a person to take care of the problem whatever it may be. A well-written machine-centric workflow will always have this step for unforeseen circumstances because there is no way to code for the unknown. Human-centric workflows are different they start with preparing for the unknown and support the human participants in whatever tasks they need to perform in order to complete the process. Human-centric workflows generally need some sort of advanced reasoning, comparison, or abstract thinking that cannot be codified. Also common to a human-centric workflow is some sort of approval decision. Whether for accountability or opinion, many human-centric workflows include a step where someone makes a judgment call on whether to proceed. The following are examples of human-centric workflows: Document approval: The stereotypical human workflow example. No two documents are alike. Each requires advanced reasoning and a high level of abstract thinking in order to be approved. In the vast majority of scenarios, there is no way this can be fully automated. Design approval: Machines cannot assess aesthetics. For example, there is no way for a computer to determine which of three designs is best suited for a web site, a brochure, or some other marketing material. Document translations: Machines cannot yet capture all of the nuances of human language. This requires a human being who understands context, cultural implications, and often very precise domain-specific knowledge. Most human-centric workflows are similar to these examples. Machines are involved for the routing, storage, and notification of task assignments in effect, the mechanics of the process while humans are responsible for the actual work performed at most of the steps. In some cases, machines may play a bigger role; for example: Retrieving data from external sources to augment information contained in a Workflow step. During a purchase requisition workflow, for instance, the computer may retrieve purchase history, budget, and other information to provide additional data to the person responsible for approving the purchase request Automated document creation based on content supplied during the workflow steps. A scenario for this would be where a salesperson supplies information via a workflow form as part of a sales order workflow and the computer automatically creates a contract document based on a template prefilled with the appropriate details and then routes that document for approval.
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Now you are ready to use Runstats. By way of example, we"ll demonstrate how to use Runstats to see which is more efficient, a single bulk INSERT versus row-by-row processing. We ll start by setting up two tables into which we ll insert 1,000,000 rows (the BIG_TABLE creation script is provided later in this section):
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The first thing the method does is check to see if rule checking is suppressed: if (_suppressRuleChecking) return new string[] {}; A business object can set ValidationRules.SuppressRuleChecking to true to prevent CheckRules() from doing any work. This is often useful when a lot of interdependent properties must be loaded all at once (such as behind a web page or XML service). In that case, an explicit call to CheckRules() is typically made after all property values have been loaded so the rules can be executed in a more efficient manner. The methods return a string array. That array contains a list of the property names for which rules were checked. If a rule has dependent properties, then this call may check the rules for more than one property. The code in BusinessBase uses this string array to determine what PropertyChanged events should be raised, as I discussed in 10. Of course, it is clear that at least the requested property s rules will be checked. var result = new List<string>(); result.Add(propertyName); This method gets the list of rules for this property by calling the RulesToCheck property. ValidationRulesManager rules = RulesToCheck; if (rules != null) The RulesToCheck property is interesting, because it provides a consolidated list of the rules for this property. The list is a combination of the per-instance and per-type rules. Usually only per-type rules exist, but if there are per-instance rules, they are merged into the list as well, and the list is sorted by priority. Look at the property in the ValidationRules class to see how this is done. Obviously, CheckRules() only continues to do work if the rules field is not null; if it is null, then no rules are associated with this property and the method can just exit. Assuming there are rules for this property, the list of rules is retrieved from the ValidationRulesManager, and the GetList() method is used to get the sorted list of IRuleMethod objects. RulesList rulesList = rules.GetRulesForProperty(propertyName, false); if (rulesList != null) { // get the actual list of rules (sorted by priority) List<IRuleMethod> list = rulesList.GetList(true); if (list != null) CheckRules(list);
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Here is one of the first questions I get asked when discussing data encryption: What is the performance overhead The only truthful answer to that question is It depends; anywhere from 0 percent to a lot. It depends on how you access the data, how frequently you access the data, and what you do to the data.
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One of my favorite .NET features is the Language Integrated Query (LINQ) support, which provides a system for performing queries on a wide range of different data sources. There are special keywords in C# to support LINQ to make the queries similar to SQL, which is a bonus if you have done any previous work on relational database. A big part of the value of LINQ is the way you can use the same kinds of queries on different types of data, including C# objects, XML documents, and databases. Once you have mastered the basic features of LINQ, you can apply them again and again to handle different types of data from different data sources. In this part of the book, we will use LINQ as the platform for exploring techniques for working with different sources of data. In 27, I introduce LINQ and demonstrate how it can be used to process groups of C# objects, such as arrays and collection classes. In 28, I will show you how to use some of the features of the Task Parallel Library we saw in 24 in order to perform parallel LINQ queries (known as PLINQ). In 29, you will see how LINQ can be used to make processing and creating XML data simple and fast. In s 30 and 31, I demonstrate how to use LINQ two different database technologies. .NET has a number of different approaches for working with databases, and I ll show you how to set up and use two of these: the Entity Framework and DataSets.
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while (e.MoveNext()) { string str = e.Current; Console.WriteLine("Item: {0}", str); } // wait for input before exiting Console.WriteLine("Press enter to finish"); Console.ReadLine(); } } If you import the System.Linq namespace, you can use the AsEnumerable<T> extension method that casts a weakly typed IEnumerator into a strongly typed IEnumerator<T>. There are references here that relate to other chapters; namespaces are explained in 11, extension methods are covered in 9, and LINQ itself is covered in s 27 through 31. The important statement in Listing 1312 is shown in bold. Once you have a generic IEnumerator<T> to work with, the Current property will return objects of the type T. In the example, this means that Current returns string objects. You might be tempted to try to explicitly cast from a weakly typed IEnumerator to a strongly typed one, like this:
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The first approach to handling an exception is with a try statement in the Task body. This is just like using a try statement in a sequentially executed program and means that the Task itself handles the problem represented by the exception. Listing 24-14 provides a demonstration. Listing 24-14. Handling an Exception Inside of a Task Body using System; using System.Threading.Tasks; class Listing 14 {
Figure 6-25. Message interception as provided by the WSE infrastructure As incoming messages are intercepted on the server, WSE moves the SOAP headers off the wire and creates instances of corresponding objects as defined in the WSE name-spaces. These objects are added to, and made available to, the rest of the request processing via the SoapContext object. A reference to the current SOAP context can be obtained from anywhere in the request processing pipeline by referencing the Current property of the RequestSoapContext: SoapContext myCtx = RequestSoapContext.Current; This concept is very similar to the HttpContext available in the ASP .NET request processing pipeline. Details of the request (SOAP headers in this case) are made available as instances of managed types. Another similarity to ASP .NET is the notion of a request and a response. Again, the big difference is that this can be used from both the client and the server, instead of just the server. Request context can be used to modify requests on the client and to examine details of the request on the server. It can be used to modify the results that are going back in a message to the client. On the client-side of the equation, you must also enable support for WSE 3.0 via the same dialog available from the context menu of the project. Once it s enabled, adding a Web Reference results in the generation of two proxies: the standard .NET proxy and a WSE-enabled proxy. The WSE-enabled proxy will be named after the .NET proxy, but will have a wse suffix tacked on. Using this proxy, clients will be able to obtain a reference to the SOAP context: using System; using WSEWebServiceClient.localhost; using Microsoft.Web.Services3; namespace WSEWebServiceClient { class ClientApp { static void Main(string[] args) { SampleWebServiceWse wsWSE = new SampleWebServiceWse();
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